Using the micro-data of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1989 to 2015 and the quantile regression method, this paper empirically analyzes the difference in the effect of vocational and general high school education on rural poverty. Get the following conclusions: Generally from the perspective of income growth, both vocational and general high school education can effectively help increase the incomes of rural residents. From the perspective of the narrowing of income gap, both vocational and regular high school education can help narrow the income gap between the poor and non-poor residents, and the effect of vocational high school education on reducing the income gap is more evident than general high school education. The study further found that vocational high school education and ordinary high school education have significant heterogeneity in the poverty reduction effect of rural residents in terms of area and age. Based on the above analysis results, it is proposed that rural residents should be more inclined to the vocational education.