In the current paper we use PSM to study the impact of kindergarten education on students’ middle school performance, on the basis of CEPS 2013-2014 survey data. We find that to attend kindergarten can generate significant positive effect on students’ overall performance in middle school, specifically, the average performance of the middle school students who have attended kindergarten is 1.14%(0.1 standard deviation) higher than that the average performance of those students who have not attended kindergarten;and the impacts of kindergarten education on middle school students’ performance in Chinese and Mathematics are stronger than on their performance in English. Moreover, the impact of kindergarten education on students’ middle school performance varies with the students’ location, gender, whether he or she is the only child in his or her family, and the time interval between kindergarten and middle school. Specifically: the closer to the city center, the stronger the effect of kindergarten on students’ middle school performance;the effect on boy participants is 28.6% lower than that on girl participants;the effect on the only-child is 76.5% higher than that on the non-only child;the effect on the Grade 9 students is weaker than that on the Grade 7 students. We finally propose a few policy suggestions on the basis of our research results.