Based on the approach to estimate the image distortion coefficients through a set of collinear pints, the influence of the distance between the object plane and the lens plane on the image distortion coefficients is studied. Combined with the experimental result, the change rule of the distortion coefficients is explored. Then, the influence of the distortion coefficients （ under various distances between the object plane and the lens plane） on the correction of the same gauge block is experimentally researched. The experimental results show that the correction results of gauge block image are different under different parameters of distortion coefficients. Only when the chosen distance in the distortion parameters is the same as the real imaging distance, the correction precision is the highest, and the measured accuracy of the gauge is also the highest.