The technology of coal-based poly-production, as the advanced coal-utilization technology, is the key way to solve China’s main problems on energy. Considering that China has not reached a joint conclusion about the concepts of co-production system, firstly this paper provided the method of defining and classifying co-production system based on China’s condition. With the increasing demand of China’s energy consumption, liquid fuel is gradually in shortage supply, so coal-based liquid fuel is on the way. Then, by building the energy security profit model, this paper also proposes the optimal scale of developing China’s coal-based alternative fuel. At last, based on the analysis of coal-based alternative fuel, the authors put forward the developing strategy and routine of co-production system till 2030.