Identification of Forcing Mechanisms of Convective Initiation over Mountains through High-Resolution Numerical Simulations

Convection and its ensuing severe weather, such as heavy rainfall, hail, tornado, and high wind, have significant im- pacts on our society and economy (e.g., Cao et al., 2004; Fritsch and Carbone, 2004; Verbout et al., 2006; Ashley and Black, 2008; Cao, 2008; Cao and Ma, 2009; Zhang et al., 2014). Due to its localized and transient nature, the initiation of convection or convective initiation remains one of the least understood aspects of convection in the scientific communi- ties, and it is a significant challenge to accurately predict the exact timing and location of convective initiation (e.g., Cai et al., 2006; Wilson and Roberts, 2006; Xue and Martin, 2006; Cao and Zhang, 2016).