From the Teaching in Separate Rooms to the Eight Subjects Teaching: The Concept of Classical Chinese Engineering Learning and Its Schoolization Process

The concept of classical engineering learning in China is embedded in the philosophy of Confucianism, the basic idea of which is "System and Function", with engineering knowledge classified as "Pragmatism", which is defined as "artistic capacity, administrative talent and learning from the low". The teaching practice of both HU Yuan' s Teaching in Separate Rooms under the guidance of "understanding the system to achieve use" in the Northern Song and Zhangnan Academy under the guidance of "learning from lower to upper level" in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties was the pioneers of schoolization of classical engineering learning. The formal schoolization of engineering learning is the formulation and implementation of the Gui Mao Educational System under the principle of "Chinese ( learning as the) essence and Western ( learning for its) utility".