Effect of microwave frequency on plasma formation in air breakdown at atmospheric pressure

Microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure causes the formation of a discrete plasma structure. The onedimensional fluid model coupling Maxwell equations with plasma fluid equations is used to study the effect of the microwave frequency on the formation of air plasma. Simulation results show that, the filamentary plasma array propagating toward the microwave source is formed at different microwave frequencies. As the microwave frequency decreases, the ratio of the distance between two adjacent plasma filaments to the corresponding wavelength remains almost unchanged(on the order of 1/4), while the plasma front propagates more slowly due to the increase in the formation time of the new plasma filament.