Development of sub – atmospheric heat exchanger for superfluid helium refrigeration system

In recent years, great progress was made in the development of large – scale cryogenic refrigeration system in Chi- na which increased the demand for research of superfluid helium refrigeration system. Such refrigeration system cannot operate ef- ficiently without sub – atmospheric heat exchangers. The current research of sub – atmospheric heat exchangers, the heat transfer mechanism problems as well as the future development of superfiuid helium refrigeration system were introduced and analyzed. It can provide a reference for the design and further exploration of sub – atmospheric heat exchangers.