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The foreign mechanical trade bearing heat treatment method is introduced ‘ Two)

31st October 2008 Bearing Technology 0 Comments

The foreign mechanical trade bearing heat treatment method is introduced:

: Modify technology in 5 appearance

5.2 Ion is run into

Have the following prominent advantage: The part after a ion note person, can well keep original size precision and surface roughness, not needing to do other appearance to process and handle again, ion note people and other appearance strengthen technology to compare. Very suitable for a process of end that accurate parts such as the aviation bearing,etc. produce; 2 is not limited by metallurgy or balanced looks picture in principle, can follow condition of work and technical requirement of the part, chosen element of people of any note needed, note people’s dosage and energy, the high wearability expected or able to bear the bearing appearance of special requirements such as corrosivity,etc., the flexibility is great, practicability is strong, can relax the choice of the matrice material appropriately too, thus can save valuable high alloy steel products and other valuable metal materials; 3 pours into the layer to combine with the matrice material firmly and reliably, does not have obvious interface, will not produce and loss and peel the phenomenon while using, this is very important for raising bearing life-span and working dependability; 4 ion note persons are a non- high-temperature course, can finish at lower temperature, the flash back, out of shape will not happen in the part and the surface is oxidized; 5 has very good controllability and repetitiveness. Countries such as America and Europe,etc. carry on substantial research on ion ran into [30~37]

Countries such as Britain, Denmark and Portugal,etc. began the work similar to USN laboratorying since 1989. Indicated finally: Poured into the anticorrosive performance that chromium ion can improve M50 steel notably, USN laboratory carried on the research that the part of the bearing ion pours into from 1979. And resist and keep in touch tired performance and improve to some extent; In addition improve the ability to resist abrasion of the bearing of the instrument with note people boron ion; To the bearing steel 52100 pours into the plasma source of nitrogen ion PS Ⅱ And then form nitrogen thing the thin layer in appearance, can improve the corrosion resistance of the bearing steel, used for replacing the noble stainless steel; Carry on nitrogen, boron ion inject to the intersection of SUS440C and stainless steel ball bearing into, can reduce the intersection of ball bearing and shaking abrasion and dusting of bearing, discharging a little small to swing, in addition, submerge ion and run into to the stainless steel PS Can improve its micro- hardness, wearability and life-span notably.

5.2 Appearance is coated

It is grown low, does not need to be heat-treated after plating that the ones that are dealt with work piece in its process are warm, the appearance of the part of the bearing gets more extensively employing while handling again. The intersection of 100Cr6 and the intersection of 440C,etc. and steel the intersection of bearing and by or PVD CVD after RF plate TiC TiN TiA lN wait for part, can improve the intersection of bearing and wearability of part, keep in touch tired to resist strength, reduce the intersection of appearance and coefficient of friction. Appearance coats technology to include: The physical gaseous phase is deposited PVD chemical gaseous phase is deposited CVD radio frequency is spattered and penetrated RF ion gushes out and scribbles Plasma sprai coating, plate etc. [38~42 ] PVD to compare with CVD in PSC chemistry.

And combined with the matrice well, peeled off, the bearing life-span, wearability are improved greatly, it is broken can not under situation of oil work normally,call for ” NoWear bear [38]; Adopt the intersection of PSC and the intersection of outer lane and exterior the intersection of round and piece of bearing, spray first 100 mu; m And then oxidize on aluminium,is it to make bearing insulating capacity it is high that it reaches that 1000V is above, if you can’t oxidize by the thicknesses of aluminium, make bearing not insulating capacities highered by being increase. The ones that scribbled and plated oxidize aluminium to combine with the matrice firmly, can improve the corrosion resistance of the bearing, bearing INSOCOA TTM bear can go on, install the intersection of SKF and Company develop two kinds paint and plate technology in recent years like general bearing plate: First, adopt the intersection of PVD and the intersection of bearing and sets of circle and roll the intersection of body and surface, plate the intersection of hardness and extremely high the intersection of diamond and carbon of structure Diamond-Lik Carbon, DLC the intersection of appearance and hardness similar to having in PTFE or MoS2 from the lubricated characteristic quenching hard the intersection of bearing steel and high 40~80% of the coefficients of friction.

Under the vacuum degree made, the low temperature ion the appearance that appeared on later stage of the eighties of the 20th century modifies technology to oozes sulphur. Its basic principle and ion ooze nitrogen similarly. Utilize high-pressure direct current enable, suck the gas ionization of sulphur, sulphur ion produced shells the surface of the work piece, surface and iron of the work piece react and produce 10 mu taking FeS as the core; m Sulphide floor with thick left and right sides. The sulphide is good solid lubricant, reduce the steel one and exposed to superficial coefficient of friction effectively, and increase with the load, the coefficient of friction is further reduced, so can improve the wearability of the heavily loaded lower bearing greatly, the life-span of the bearing but improvement is about 3 times.

Reduce the coefficient of friction, improve the wearability. Seize by the intersection of M50 and the intersection of steel and bearing of phosphorus under short-term broken situation of oil, the low-temperature phosphorus and function of oozing sulphur are similar. Put on through a work piece 40 ℃ TA P solution sour lipoprotein of phosphoric acid 13 alkane China can get 0.05~0.25 mu to ooze 4h on the surface of the work piece to soak; m Thick Fe2O3 and Fe4 P2O7 3 appearance floor. Have improved the dependability of the bearing [36]

Time is 1~9h plants according to the steel that the part uses ШХ 15 95 Х 18 55 СМ 5 ФА And performance needs to select corresponding temperature and time for use, the bearing can be used while producing and repairing. Ooze, spread the layer by Cr2 NC 3 Cr, it uses the gas method powder law to spread and ooze chromium 850~1100 ℃ goes on. Fe 23C6 and Cr,make up Fe 7C3, layers of 16~27 mus dark; m It last chromium hardness 1650~1900HV after and it carry on heat treatments regular,heat resistance, corrosion resistance, wearability and last fatigue strength to improve obviously [42 ]

6 appearance is heated and quenched

Former Soviet Union is to launching more studying [43~48 ] its main application occasion to divide to theory and production application of this craft into two kinds: First, the appearance reaction of the bearing of the railway is heated and quenched, it is to use one of the comparatively extensive methods that the heating appearance of reaction is quenched. Adopt new the intersection of material and the intersection of ШХ and suits of circle that 4 steel make after reaction heats and quenches, appearance organize for hard wear-resisting the intersection of horse and body, the body of Suo better for toughness of core, crooking the body, appearance reaches 500Mpa and presses the stress for being high, made the bearing 1 time high than ШХ 15 СГ in its service life, and totally dispelled the fragile phenomenon that broke suddenly when one set of circles used, having improved the dependability of the bearing, performance and low carbon steel carburize and quench similarly, but the cost is well below the latter. At the same time, also develop the corresponding specialized inductor and quench the apparatus, and the result of quenching this material and reaction generalizes to, requires heavily loaded bearings such as the rolling mill bearing of wear-resisting and high toughness,etc.; Another application that the heating appearance of reaction quenches is the heat treatment of the super-huge bearing, reduce the quenching hardness disparity out of shape of one set of circles of the large-scale bearing, save the investment cost of the apparatus at the same time. Japan [47 ] heat, it applies the intersection of car and uniform velocity to to be over to heat treatment of section not quenching victorying the intersection of appearance and reaction, include the intersection of ladder and axle, the intersection of shell and inner surface and roll quenching of dish enclose by purpose-built reaction once heat and finish. The application of high-frequency heat treatment and cold forging technology makes the production cost reduce greatly, the dependability of the products is improved greatly too.

Compared with the situation that other appearance harden the method, a bunch of superficial heat treatment of high energy such as laser are that the new heat treatment method [49~50 ] to develop in recent years uses more CO2 laser beams. Heat and can get 0.25~2.0mm to harden layer through the laser. It have, harden layers of depth and accurate having advantaging such as being out of shape position control. High-carbon the intersection of chromium and the intersection of bearing steel and part quench hard the intersection of horse and extremely tiny distributing the intersection of even surplus and few body by carbide body of layer after the laser of surface is hardened, than generally quench the flash back and have higher hardness and slip the wearability. In addition, high energy bunch such as the laser can also be regarded as the heat source that the surface coat the craft, can finish appearance and quench and coat the course, especially the development of nanotechnology in recent years once, this compound process will have broad application prospect in the appearance of the part of the accurate bearing is handled.

7 bearing heat treatment is equipped

7.1 Annealed apparatus

Shorten annealed cycle, industrially developed country popularize the intersection of push rod and type in an all-round way and retreat stove by Qiu Wen by type,etc. by bottom by roller in will it be sixty or seventy times the 20th century for a long time. Power saving, improve annealed quality. With the development of bearing part process technology, accurate to forge and not accurate to pass through many hands or places, expand cold to pass through many hands or places Adoption of craft, the intersection of part and machining accuracy of blank more and more high, popularize, have little turning crafts progressively, therefore has brought it to protecting the demand with annealed atmosphere. Industrially developed countries have already generally adopted and protected the atmosphere annealedly, in order to the machine process amount after reducing annealedly, raise and process efficiency, the energy-conservation of material-saving, reduce the capital.

7.2 Engineering apparatus that convention horse’s body quenches

In near these decades, the conservative heating device is without protecting box stove, salt bath stove or well type stove of the atmosphere. The frock apparatus development that horse’s body quenches mainly concentrates on the following several respect:

An automatic production line

The automatic production line adopted abroad, according to its structure Or the movement way in the stove of work piece Can be divided into: Have horse network bring stove and have horse network bring stove, cast the intersection of chain and stove, the intersection of roller and the intersection of bottom and stove, the intersection of cylinder and the intersection of stove and serial production lines, at present. From material loading, wash the atmosphere ago, safeguard Or controllable atmosphere Play and heat, quench, and then washing It is deep and cold to still carry on for twice sometimes And the flash back is finished automatically. Automatic level and controlling the precision high, the quality of the work piece is even after handling, the work piece that some production lines are still furnished with after the line checkout equipment is to treatment carries on deforming or quality testing and control, heat of whole can serve as a part of automatic production line of the bearing while handling the production line. Different heat handle production line, suitable for different type and the intersection of size and the intersection of bearing and heat treatment of part according to structural characteristic their, if the network takes the stove to be suitable for one set of circles of medium and small-scale bearing; The roller bottom stove is furnished with the automatic rising and quench the device, is suitable for the bearing part of bigger size; The cylinder stove is suitable for rolling body and small-scale set of circles.

2 multi-purpose stoves

Finish to have, oxidize, quench process work piece, multi-purpose stove heat and maintain, quench, combine an organic whole under the atmosphere controlled atmosphere. Mainly suitable for the bearing part heat treatment of many varieties of short run.

3 reaction heats and quenches the flash back apparatus

The work piece after handling has some to heat unexistent performance conventionally. The apparatus is small, reaction is heated advantages such as fast, energy-conservation,etc. of having heating speeds. Easy to integrate to the production line of the bearing, realize automation production.

4 vacuum stoves

Cooperate with high pressure to be angry to quench, can control cooling and out of shape of work piece, can reduce or prevent the oxidizing of the work piece from to heat under the vacuum state. Prevent the oil from quenching the problem of environmental pollution brought, realize the clean heat treatment, in addition, after the heat treatment of vacuum, the micro- organization of the work piece is tinier and even, appearance keeps the same with core organization, the hardness is even, are favorable to the improvement of fatigue life of the bearing.

5 quenching cools medium and equipment

Add and press for cold pharmaceutical, cleaner, bright pharmaceutical, antioxidant separately in order to improve its performance of cooling, resist aging performance, bright performance, high-temperature performance etc., quenching mediums can be divided into three major kinds: Oil base, water base and gas quench mediums. It is the most frequently used quenching medium that the oil base quenches mediums. Ordinary quenching the kerosene is N32 or N15 machinery oil. Warm oil,etc. series of forming fast oil, fast bright oil, high temperature and grading etc. quench the kerosene in order to apply to the quenching of different size and bearing part of the requirement, in addition there is low and volatile vacuum that quenches the kerosene. Oil base it quenches shortcomings of medium to be to quench in the course producing soot, causing air pollution, causing water pollution in the subsequent cleaning process.

Quench, cool in the course, water base it quenches mediums to be by organic polymer, resist corrosive agent and other aqueous solution that additive make up. Can receive different cooled characteristics and cool in order to the quenching suitable for different bearing parts to require through changing type and density of organic polymer. The organic matter adheres to and reduces the danger that the part quench fracturing the part appearance, and does not produce the soot, it is convenient to wash, pollution-free, quench the developing direction of the medium. Its insufficient to resist aging performance, not so good as the intersection of oil and base, quench medium, need, go on, test often solution, add organic matter solution in order to guarantee its performance of cooling regularly.

For instance the research [11 ] of Tinscher,et al. is indicated: When the velocity of flow of the nitrogen reaches 100m/, it is a medium commonly used nitrogen that the gas quenches and adopts the inert gas Spray the spray nozzle compressed the gas to designed specially to the surface of the work piece to realize the quenching of the work piece is cooled. Can control the cooling characteristic and deform through regulating the pressure of the gas and structure of spray nozzle. Its characteristic of cooling is similar to oil, not when the luminance of the appearance to the work piece does not have special requirement, can adopt and compress the air as quenching mediums, 3~5 mu that the surface formed while quenching; m It can be through rubing and processing deleting to oxidize layer. The gas quenches and quenches cleaner than the water base, and the cost is lower, its key technology is structural design of a spray nozzle.

Such as oil warm entering oil waying,etc. by cooled characteristic, circulation and direction, speed and work piece of mixing of oil of oil, it is to influence the work piece to quench another great factor of the result to quench and cool and equip besides quenching mediums. Control many parameters in quenching the oil groove abroad dailily. In order to get best quenching organization and performance, reduce deformation to minimum extent at the same time. Famous bearing companies such as Japan NSK,etc. measure fixedly and online in quenching the kerosene, add necessary additive or upgrade and quench the kerosene according to measuring the result; On the other hand, one that is to work piece quench, out of shape to go on, measure online, go out out of shape ultra poor automatic go-no-go of work piece, correct, enter one more process, can reduce rubing the allowance of the work piece greatly. In addition, it is all air-cooled to quench the cooling of the medium to cool in the oil groove by the water circulation and change into progressively, it saves a large number of water resources to use air as the cooling medium.

Can finish, go up and down automatically, upper and lower material, gush out the intersection of oil and cooling, oil warm to regulate and one is urgent Or the pressure Movements of regulating etc., it is a quenching frock generally adopted to quench and press the bed automatically in many worker’s location abroad too. The computer controls, it is adjustable to produce the beat, but applicable as a part of automatic production line of the bearing.

6 washes the apparatus

And there is profit to separate the device. In the advanced washing apparatus, it is usually a indispensable process after oil is quenched to wash. The washing apparatus that the continuous production line uses generally finishes the hot soap water soaking, course that fresh water spraying, hot wind dries,etc.. Plus two cool device furnished with, refrigerate apparatus, the temperature can adjust between 5~10 ℃ still dry, In order to reduce residual’s content of the body, improve size stability.

Use the special gas, liquid to mix the pump and produce small air bubbles and sneak into cleaner, it is a washing apparatus developed in recent years that the vacuum is washed. It boiling point drop, heat principle that boiling point drops also its, wash with organic liquid such as oil, water, vapor after the volatile liquid reduce pressure with quench kerosene; In addition. The ones that utilized the microbubble to produce when the surface of the work piece breaks blew up the cohesion that strength destroys spot and work piece, thus further improve the result that the vacuum washes. After front room is washed, the vacuum room, enter remaining oil and water evaporation and carry on the quick drying of vacuum through smoking the vacuum after entering. The advantage of this kind of washing apparatus is washing effectually, especially the complicated part to structure, it is more prominent to wash the result, the surface of the work piece is bright after washing; Safe and cleaning, cleaner is the fresh water, do not add chloride and petroleum solvent harmful to environment; Automation is competent, and can utilize and wash and heat and substitute the low-temperature flash back, save the flash back expenses.

7.3 Shellfish’s body waits for warmly to quench equipping

Mainly there are two major kinds of apparatuses used: Automatic production line and cycle stove. According to the characteristic that the bearing is processed.

If the production of the bearing of the railway use more automatic production lines. It is automatic last atmosphere production line mainly heating furnace and,etc. warm to if you can’t quench by trough, make up, an automatic production line: The bearing that there are few varieties, the batch is big is suitable for automation production. Wait for warm to quench some apparatus used according to transport movement of work piece can divide 3 kinds into among them: Transfer to the bottom, pushing one and conveyer belt type. From loving develop association forest Company last bottom, push away by records of type,etc. warm to last apparatus being records of organization put lasting bottom or be push away on,etc. at the salt baths warms, the work piece is passed in and out according to certain beat, memory is controlled the material happen in the order, movements are controlled by PLC order, this kind of apparatus is competent in automation, investment is large; By the intersection of sand and Philippine being warm to quench transfer machine and the intersection of network and person who take that use generally at present, maintain atmosphere it quenches the intersection of transfer machine and structural principle to be similar in conveyer belt type,etc. that Company develop, it is the salt bath to just use and quench mediums, this kind of apparatus is generally only suitable for the smaller part.

It is medium and small-scale rolling mill bearing manufacturer it adopt more stoves box not quench and last trough ,etc. troughs warm last trough, also adopt box stove a plurality of,etc. warm troughs. It is with little investment that this is disposed, the applicability is strong, but labour intensity is great, safe difference. The apt general company full of trees quenches etc. multi-purpose stove and shellfish’s body warmly and combines as an organic whole, 2 cycle types,etc. are warm to quench the apparatus: Because the bearing of the rolling mill is wide in variety, the batch is little. It prevent it get and it is warm wait for oxidizing between not quenching since heating device,and,etc. warm to adopt by air stove, mix a set of incomplete salt and retrieve the system, prevent the environmental pollution of the incomplete salt. In addition, can carry on the handling of much assortment bearing parts of short run with the characteristic of the multi-purpose stove, the size of overcoming the warm apparatus such as being generally automatic limits. At present, shellfish’s body waits for warmly to quench while popularizing in a more cost-effective manner, this apparatus has very great value to popularize.

7.4 Safeguard atmosphere and control

Maintenance Controllable It is popularized that the atmosphere heat, with the improvement of surface quality requirement after quenching to the work piece. The heat treatment including that annealed is adopted and protected Or controllable The atmosphere is heated. In the seventies of the 20th century, mainly adopted the heat absorption type atmosphere. Heat absorption type atmosphere the intersection of raw materials and angry and mist of air part react, form one include 18 23% CO 37 42% H2 over the intersection of quantity and N2 maintain angry under function of catalyst Atmosphere. In the eighties, the international energy crisis gave international economy enormous impact, the base atmosphere of nitrogen arose at the historic moment, the one of group of the atmosphere of nitrogen – methanol is similar to heat absorption type atmosphere, the base atmosphere of nitrogen represented by nitrogen – methanol is popularized extensively. In the 1990s, led air and hydrocarbon to higher than 800 degging directly after appearing; C Producing the angry method, namely the growing atmosphere directly in the burner hearth. Through the finding, this kind of atmosphere which contains the high CH4 composition, though its gas reacts and can not reach the equilibrium level similar to the heat absorption type atmosphere, but the transmission ability of its carbon is controlled by CO and H2 content in the atmosphere, pop one’s head, combine the intersection of CO2 and analysis instrument, carry on the intersection of carbon and tendency control can realize with oxygen person who grow major advantage of atmosphere to save the angry consumption of raw materials in a large amount direct, according to statistics no matter this kind of atmosphere is used in the cycle type atmosphere stove or continuity atmosphere stove, its raw materials are angry to consume and save about 70% of expenses. Today, the whole world have more thanth sets of atmosphere nearly stove use the atmosphere go on, carburize and the intersection of carbon and nitrogen ooze, maintain the intersection of atmosphere and the intersection of person who quench and many kinds of heat treatment together.

The service life that oxygen pops one’s head is that the indefinite gradual drift of the signal of popping one’s head of oxygen results from fixed and electrolytic typical defect. Because this kind of drift is mainly influenced by operating mode of running of the stove, the practical application in recent years is indicated. And the beginning of drifting about and drift greatly are unpredictable so the difference between carbon tendency and actual value that is popped one’s head by oxygen and measured is unpredictable too, people fixed the intersection of check-up and their measure precision, for example one week one, find oxygen pop one’s head the signal is distorted through the way that the foil of steel is booked the carbon stretch, this is really a job of a trouble, help the stove to realize full-automatically, will even influence the normal production sometimes. In view of the above-mentioned reason, Ipsen has developed a double measuring system.

Another one is measured the system to use for measuring the working state that this oxygen pops one’s head independently, standard oxygen of a strip pops one’s head and is used in normal control carbon tendency. Namely these two systems measure carbon tendency of the atmosphere separately, when the result is offsetted greatly, will call the police. Second this measure system work component can the intersection of CO2 and infrared analysis instrument, can one miniature oxygen visit head λ – visit hair too Up until now, such a lot of atmosphere stove installation has measured the system doubly already.


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